Advanced Chemistry

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  • Kinetics
    • The study of chemical kinetics is the study of change over time. It answers questions like:
      How fast are reactants consumed?
      How fast are products formed?
      This unit is dedicated to the exploration of how these questions are answered. We will look at the experimental evidence of how concentration affects these rates.

      We will also examine what occurs on the molecular level, especially with respect to the motion of molecules, that affects rates of reactions.
  • Chemical Equilibrium
    • This unit introduces the concept of chemical equilibrium and how it applies to many chemical reactions. The quantitative aspects of equilibrium are explored thoroughly through discussions of the law of mass action as well as the relationship between equilibrium constants with respect to concentrations and pressures of substances. Much of the discussion explores how to solve problems to find either the value of the equilibrium constant or the concentrations of substances at equilibrium. ICE (initial-change-equilibrium) tables are introduced as a problem-solving tool and multiple examples of their use are included.

      From a qualitative standpoint, Le Châtelier’s principle is used to explain how various factors affect the equilibrium constant of a reaction along with the concentrations of all species.
  • Acid-Base Equilibria

    • The concept of equilibrium is applied to acid and base solutions. To begin, the idea of weak acids and bases is explored along with the equilibrium constants associated with their ionization in water and how the value of the equilibrium constant is associated with the strength of the acid or base. The autoionization of water is discussed and how temperature affects this process. A variety of problem types are covered including calculations of pH, pOH, [OH-], and [H+] for both strong and weak acids and bases.

      Aqueous salt solutions are classified as acids and bases and the multi-step ionization of polyprotic acids is discussed. Finally, the concept of Lewis acids and bases is discussed and demonstrated through examples.
  • Aqueous Equilibria
    • This unit continues and expands on the theme of equlibria. You will examine buffers, acid/base titrations and the equilibria of insoluble salts.
  • Thermodynamics
    • The overarching theme of thermodynamics is the prediction of whether a reaction will occur spontaneously under a certain set of conditions. Entropy and Free Energy are defined and utilized for this purpose.